African Studies Quarterly Reference Style Guidelines

BOOK (Single author)

Chalfin, Brenda. 2004. Shea Butter Republic: State Power, Global Markets, and the Making of an Indigenous Commodity. New York, New York: Routledge.

If more than one book by the same author, then the most recent publication is first (the same is true for articles, etc.):

Chalfin, Brenda. 2010. Neoliberal Frontiers: An Ethnography of Sovereignty in West Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

_____. 2004. Shea Butter Republic: State Power, Global Markets, and the Making of an Indigenous Commodity. New York: New York: Routledge.

BOOK (three or more authors)

Hyden, Goran, et al. 2002. Media and Democracy in Africa. NJ.: Transaction Publishers.


White, Luise. 1997. “Cars Out of Place: Vampires, Technology, and Labor in East and Central Africa.” In Frederick Cooper and Ann Laura Stoler (eds.), Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (Berkeley: University of California Press): 436-60.


Amoko, Apollo. 2005. “The Resemblance of Colonial Mimicry: A Revisionary Reading of Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s The River Between.” Research in African Literatures 36.1: 34-50.


Africa News, 7 December 1992, p.5.

Nossiter, Adam. 2010. “Ivory Coast Standoff Leads to Fears of Violence.” New York Times, 6 December: A10.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL (theses, dissertations, and other works)

Mapunda, Bertram Baltasar. 1995. “An Archaeological View of the History and Variation of Ironworking in Southwestern Tanzania” Ph.D. dissertation., University of Florida.

Moyd, Michelle R. 1996. “Language and Power: Africans, Europeans, and Language Policy in German Colonial Tanganyika.” Master’s thesis, University of Florida.


Smouse, Mantoa Rose. 2006. “Language and the Politics of Inequality in South Africa: The Case of the Western Cape.” Presented at the University of Florida Center for African Studies Gwendolen M. Carter Conference “Law, Politics, Culture, and Society in South Africa: The Politics of Inequality Then and Now” (Gainesville, Florida).


(When no publication facts are to be found, the abbreviations n.p., n.d. may be used.)

Union of South Africa. Department of Information. n.d. “The Transkei: Emancipation without Chaos.”


Interviews are best cited in text or notes. It is not necessary to include them in a bibliography, but if they are listed, the entries should follow a form similar to below:

Lemarchand, René. 2004. Transcript: Interview by Jennifer Ludden. Discussion re: the continuing violence in Central Africa between the Hutu and Tutsi. Weekend Edition (National Public Radio), 15 August.

Jangano, Rishon. 1998. Personal interview, Nyakatsapa Mission, Zimbabwe. 23 April (transcripts in author’s possession).


Haydon, Edwin Scott. 1960. Law and Justice in Buganda. Butterworth’s African Law Series, no. 2. London: Butterworth. Microfilm. East Lansing: Michigan State University Libraries, 1996.


Robinson, David. 1997. Review of Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick by Leonardo Villalon. International Journal of Middle East Studies 29.1: 134-35.


U.S. House of Representatives. 2010. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health. “Zimbabwe: From Crisis to Renewal.” 2 December.

U.S. Senate. 1977. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on African Affairs. “South Africa, U.S. Policy and the Role of U.S. Corporations.” Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.


United Nations Security Council. 2010. Thirty-first Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 30 March 2010. S/2010/164. S/2010/164.

United States Senate. 1976. Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Policy toward Africa: Report to Accompany S. Res. 436. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.


South Africa. 1953. “Bantu Education Act.” Act No. 47. Government of South Africa.


National Archives of Zimbabwe file AOH/32: Testimony of Chief Marufu Chikwakwa (February 1978) 30.

United Methodist Church Archives, Lulu Tubbs Papers 1079-6-2:03-04: L. Tubbs, “The Record of a Great and Useful Life.” n.d., 1.


Where the original source is available in another form, the pertinent publication information needs to be provided along with the URL used as a reference; where it is available only as an internet-based source, then the entry should follow a form similar to below:

Austin, Kathy L. 2010. Panel Discussant on WIDE ANGLE Program “The Changing Face of War.” PBS Video: 2 January. interactives-extras/audio-and-video/women-war-peace-video-the-changing-face-of-war/4115/.